Gynaecological malignancies develop when the cells lining a reproductive organ undergo a transformation, and these aberrant cells start to proliferate and spread. You are more likely to develop certain forms of gynecologic malignancies if you present with risk factors such as:

  • Old age
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Strong family history
  • BRCA gene (BRCA positive)
  • HPV
  • Previous abnormal Pap smear
  • HIV
  • Unopposed oestrogen therapy
  • Endometriosis
  • Smoking
  • Weak immune system
  • Lynch Syndrome

These will require more frequent and tailored gynaecological evaluation. Your risk will be assessed by Dr Bryant, and a screening plan is recommended.



Gynaecological cancers are tumours that develop in the uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, or other areas of the female reproductive system. The female reproductive system is located below the stomach in the space between the hip bones.

Signs and symptoms of gynecologic cancers

Gynaecological cancer can present with early warning signs but is frequently overlooked due to its similarity to symptoms of other prevalent illnesses. All gynaecological cancers are different; thus, no two cases of the disease will exhibit the same symptoms. The following are some of the most typical signs of gynecologic cancer:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Abnormal lumps and bumps
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Back pain
  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Eating difficulties
  • Extreme pain and cramping in the lower abdomen
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain and bleeding after sex
  • Persistent vaginal discharge
  • Offensive vaginal discharge
  • Unexplainable weight loss
  • Pelvic pain
  • Pelvic pressure
  • Rashes
  • Sores/ulcers on the vulva
  • Vulva burning
  • Vulva itching
  • Vulva pain
  • Vulva tenderness
  • Vulva skin colour changes
  • Warts

Types of gynecologic oncology Dr Bryant covers include:

Cervical cancer
Cancer that develops in the cells of the cervix is known as cervical cancer. The lower portion of a woman's uterus and her vagina are connected by a hollow tube called the cervix. The human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a significant role in the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, a strong preventative measure involves taking the HPV vaccine before your first sexual relationship.

Management of patients with BRCA gene mutation
When BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry specific alterations, also known as pathogenic variations or mutations, they are referred to as tumour suppressor genes. Every individual carries two copies of these genes, one from each parent. Several malignancies are more likely to develop in people who inherit damaging variations (BRCA gene mutations) from one of these genes. Dr Bryant administers prophylactic medication or performs more frequent and routine check-ups to keep track of a diagnosis if a patient tests positive for the BRCA gene mutation. Dr Bryant will review all possible preventative actions like removal of the ovaries should harmful variations occur.

Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer starts in the ovaries or nearby organs like the fallopian tubes and the peritoneum. Ovarian cells multiply swiftly and penetrate and destroy healthy body tissue. There is no screening test for ovarian cancer.

Premalignant conditions
Premalignant conditions are diseases, tumours, or lesions with aberrant cells that are more likely to become cancerous. Types of premalignant conditions that Dr Bryant treats include:

  • Endometrial hyperplasia - Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition that occurs when the endometrium (uterine lining) thickens as a result of a surplus of cells. The condition itself is not referred to as cancer. However, endometrial hyperplasia increases the likelihood of developing endometrial cancer.
  • Cervical dysplasia - The cervix, also known as the endocervical canal, is the orifice between the uterus and the vagina, and cervical dysplasia is a premalignant condition in which aberrant cell development takes place on its surface. Also known as CIN disease, the condition occurs due to the HPV virus and can be detected with routine Pap smear and HPV screening. If left untreated, these abnormal cells may develop into cervical cancer.

Uterine cancer
Endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma are two cancers that affect the uterus.

  • Endometrial cancer - Endometrial cancer develops when cells in the uterus' inner lining, the endometrium, begin to proliferate out of control.
  • Uterine sarcoma - Uterine sarcoma is a form of uterine cancer that targets the muscles and tissues supporting the uterus.

Vaginal cancer
A rare type of cancer, vaginal cancer, typically develops in the lining of the vagina. The vagina is a passageway leading from the uterus' entrance to the outside of the body.

Vulva cancer
A vulva carcinoma is a form of cancer that develops on the outer surface of the female genitalia. The skin that covers the clitoris, labia, urethra and vagina is known as the vulva. Vulva cancer affects the exterior surface of the female genitalia.


The best treatment for gynaecological cancer will depend on the particular type of cancer and whether or not you intend to have children in the future. The use of certain treatments and your general health are considered factors in her treatment strategies. The stage of cancer dictates your treatment regimen. Many forms of gynaecological cancer are treated primarily through surgery. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies are a few additional medical options. If radiation treatment is essential, Dr Bryant will advise it to treat cancerous regions. For the treatment of gynecologic malignancies, Dr Bryant may also recommend hormone therapy.

Dr Emma Bryant part of the Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedure 2023


Are gynecologic cancers curable?

Gynaecologic cancers are treatable if caught early enough.

Can gynecologic cancers spread?

Gynaecologic cancers, like all other malignant cancer forms, can spread.

What is the most common gynecologic cancer?

Uterine cancer is the most common form of gynecologic cancer.

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